Difference Between Transcription vs Translation

Difference Between Transcription vs Translation

There is no one element that can be said to be the most important in the world of science, but atoms come close. They are the most basic unit of elements and they determine the outcome of biological activities both within and in between cell structures.

In the human body, for instance, there are quite a number of them, each of which is delegated to specific functions that see to the effectiveness of the complex structure of the DNA.

Speaking of which, the DNA, which is a hereditary material, undergoes several underlying processes, two of which are the center of our discussion today, and that is transcription vs translation. These two are associated with gene expression, which is how information can be stored in a cell through protein formation.

Definition of Transcription

Transcription is defined as a process that involves the transfer of the DNA data to the RNA through their strands by a sequence of polymerization responses catalyzed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases enzymes.

In simpler terms, this definition means that biological info is transferred from the DNA strand to the RNA strand by converting them into proteins. This is the very first step towards gene expression and a prerequisite to the next phase.

To understand this biological process, we have summarized some vital evidence about it in the bullet points below.

  • During this process, only the template strand is replicated, which results in mRNA
  • The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme catalyzes and regulates the entire process
  • Ribonucleic acid, also known as RNA, becomes activated to convert material stored in the DNA to protein. It is terminated after being elongated
  • This process occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotes and cytoplasm of prokaryotes where the enzymes and factors are available

Definition of Translation

Translation is defined as a step of gene expression where the messenger ribonucleic acid goes through protein synthesis to express the RNA in form of polypeptide chains.

In describing translation vs transcription, it is important to keep in mind that the former is all about the conversion of mRNA is converted to protein while the latter is about the use of the DNA to form a complementary RNA strand. The production of a chain of amino acids is necessary to accomplish the former. This network of amino acids, also known as polypeptide chain, fold to form proteins.

Here are a few points you may want to keep in mind about this process.

  • It can only take place after the transcription process has been initiated and completed, and it is the last step in DNA expression.
  • In addition to the evidence on the mRNA, there are other forms of RNA that play a part in the production of the amino acid sequence. An example is tRNA.
  • Various factors come into play in this process, the most important of which is the aminoacetyl tRNA synthetase.

Main Differences Between Transcription vs Translation

In this section, we will summarize the difference between translation and transcription as it has to do with enzymes, elongation, initiation, raw material, and regulation.

Basis of ComparisonTranscriptionTranslation
DefinitionA process that involves the transfer of the DNA genetic material to the RNA through their strands by a series of polymerization reactions catalyzed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases enzymesA step of gene expression where the messenger ribonucleic acid goes through protein synthesis to express the RNA in form of polypeptide chains
Required enzymesDNA-dependent RNA polymeraseAminoacetyl tRNA synthetase
ElongationOccurs by the binding of complementary base pairs to a new sequenceOccurs by the binding of amino acids
Raw materialsGuanine, adenine, uracil, and cytosineThe twenty amino acids
RegulationRegulated by eukaryotes and operons in prokaryotesRegulated by the binding of ribosomal units to the complex

Difference Between Transcription and Translation: Conclusion

In conclusion, we hope we answered the question – what is the difference between transcription and translation? So far, we have provided an abridged summary on this topic, but there are still some other factors you need to be aware of for a more detailed understanding.